C = (F - 32.0) / 1.8

F = (C * 1.8) + 32.0

All temperatures are in expressed in degrees F. correction = 1.313454 - 0.132674*F + 0.002057793*F*F - 0.000002627634*F*F*F SG_corrected = SG + (correction * 0.001)

All temperatures are in expressed in degrees C. For temperatures less than 3.98 C: correction = -0.000032692*C - 0.000740644 For temperatures less than 50.0 C and greater than or equal to 3.98 C: correction = -0.0008031922 - 0.0000473773*C + 0.000007231263*C*C - 0.00000003078278*C*C*C For temperatures greater than or equal to 50.0 C: correction = -0.005431719 + 0.0001963596*C + 0.000002661056*C*C SG_corrected = SG + correction

Kgs = lbs * 0.453592

lbs = kgs * 2.204623

liters = gals * 3.785412

gallons = liters * 0.264272

liters = qts * 0.946353

quarts = liters * 1.056688

Vadd = (Vmash * (TCm - TFm)) / (TFm - Ta) where: Vadd = volume of the water addition Vmash = current volume of the mash TCm = current temperature of the mash TFm = final (target) temperature of the mash Ta = temperature of the water addition

Reference: Manning, M.P., Understanding Specific Gravity and Extract, Brewing Techniques, 1,3:30-35 (1993) Plato = -676.67 + 1286.4*SG - 800.47*SG*SG + 190.74*SG*SG*SG

Vnew = ((SGc - 1.0)/(SGt - 1.0)) * Vcur where: Vcur = current volume SGc = current SG SGt = target SG

SGnew = ((SGc - 1.0) * (Vcur / Vtar)) + 1.0 where: SGc = current SG Vcur = current volume Vtar = target volume

Abw = (OE - RE) / (2.0665 - (0.010665 * OE)) where: OE = Original extract in degrees Plato RE = (0.1808 * OE) + (0.8192 * AE) where: AE = Final (apparent) extract in degrees PlatoUse

**Alcohol by weight according to A.J. de Lange:**

Abw = (PO - PF) * BF where: PO = Original degrees Plato PF = Finished degrees Plato BF = Ballings factor = 0.39661 + (0.0017091*Plato) + (0.000010788*Plato*Plato)Use

Ca = (1881.22 * FSG) * ((OSG - FSG)/(1.775 - OSG)) where: OSG = Original Specific Gravity FSG = Final Specific Gravity

Ce = 3550.0 * FSG * ((0.1808 * OSG) + (0.8192 * FSG) - 1.0004) where: OSG = Original Specific Gravity FSG = Final Specific Gravity

Formula was derived from the 69th edition (1988-1989) of the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, "Concentrative Properties of Aqueous Solutions: Conversion Tables", Table 88 Sucrose MathCAD was used to curvefit the data for Degrees Brix @ 20 C (% sucrose by weight) and specific gravity @ 15 C SG = 1.000898 + 0.003859118*B + 0.00001370735*B*B + 0.00000003742517*B*B*B where: B = measured refractivity in Brix SG = calculated specific gravity at 15 C

SG = 1.001843 - 0.002318474*OB - 0.000007775*OB*OB - 0.000000034*OB*OB*OB + 0.00574*FB + 0.00003344*FB*FB + 0.000000086*FB*FB*FB where: SG = estimated specific gravity of the sample OB = Original Brix FB = Final Brix

RI = 1.33302 + 0.001427193*B + 0.000005791157*B*B where: B = measured refractivity in Brix RI = calculated Refractive Index

RI = 1.33302 + 0.001427193*FB + 0.000005791157*FB*FB ABW = 1017.5596 - (277.4*SG) + RI*((937.8135*RI) - 1805.1228) where: FB = Final Brix RI = calculated Refractive Index SG = Final SG

Last modified: Mon Mar 25 12:18:41 PST 2002